Earth Island Angels

Earth Island Angels is an art project

On this site you will find a variety of resources concerning images of the fetus or embryo thoughout history. Patriarchal culture has stigmatized women who choose abortion, turning them and their health care providers into objects of hatred and persecution. I hope that these writings and images will be helpful to those who have experienced abortions and the cultural conflict surrounding them, as well as those who may be questioning the morality of abortion.

In Many Cultures Angels and Spirits Represent Fetuses

A survey of 400 ancient cultures found evidence that nearly every one practiced abortion. Without effective contraceptives, women who did not have the food, love and other resources to give to an additional child often had no other choice but abortion. Aborted fetuses were seen as messengers to the gods and many cultures have venerated the still born, the miscarriage and the abortion as angel, fairy or water spirit. Cherubs, Polynesian Tiki gods and the Jizo dolls of Buddhist Japan are examples. Read my article, "A History of Angels," for the in-depth story.

Find Your Own Spirit Image to Help Heal the Abortion Experience

Earth Island Angels are the modern version of the Tiki god or the Cherub. Like the Buddhist Jizo dolls, we can use these icons to focus our thoughts and prayers for healing. Earth Island Angels can be anything. Angels and fairies are very popular today and lovely images of them can be found everywhere. Put an angel or a fairy on your personal altar or sacred space and use it to remind you of the sad but sometimes necessary sacrifice of abortion. Use it to give thanks that we have much better contraceptives today than our ancestors did. Give thanks that we rarely have to resort to abortion. Give thanks also for the lives of millions of women that have been saved by access to safe, legal abortion.

Visit the Earth Island Angels Gallery

I have created my own Earth Island Angels in the image of an embryo with butterfly wings. These images remind me of the wondrous biological diversity of the Earth as represented by the thousands of species of butterflies. When I see these images I am reminded that because I chose to end my accidental pregnancies, there are two fewer human beings on the earth impacting the habitat of butterflies and other creatures. They make me feel good about the decision I made because I have left more room on Earth for nature to flourish. Go to the gallery to see them and to angels for an in-depth article. You'll find a prayer, poster, bibliography and other materials on the resource pages.

And here is a slideshow presentation that covers the material in "A History of Angels" and more:

"We can't abort life. We only abort matter." - Richard Grossinger

"We can't abort life. We only abort matter."
- Richard Grossinger, Embryos, Galaxies, and Sentient Beings: How the Universe Makes Life

Statement of Principles

This web site is Pro-Choice, Pro-Life and Pro-Reproductive Restraint.

Pro-Choice: Every woman deserves the right to control her own body. No woman should be forced to bear a child she does not want. No woman should be sterilized against her will. The right to a safe, legal abortion is a basic human right.

Pro-Life: Our capacity for reproduction must be respected. While there is no right to life for fetuses that cannot survive on their own outside a woman's womb, their lives must be honored in some way when taken out of necessity. Death is a part of life and the truly Pro-Life position on abortion recognizes that birth control and abortion are far more ethical than the war, extinction and starvation that result from too many people.

Pro-Restraint: Reproductive Restraint is an absolute necessity for humankind. We are so successful as a species that we have nearly eliminated the larger animals that were our natural predators. Even the worst germs and viruses are not stopping population growth. The only way to keep our numbers down is through Reproductive Restraint. It is either that or war and starvation. Reproductive Restraint should not involve physical coercion but rather moral persuasion.

This quote from Margaret Sanger reminds us of the inhumanity and horror of the consequences of the  so-called "pro-life" position that forces women to bear unwanted children:

Upon woman the burden and the horrors of war are heaviest. Her heart is the hardest wrung when the husband or the son comes home to be buried or to live a shattered wreck. Upon her devolve the extra tasks of filling out the ranks of workers in the war industries, in addition to caring for the children and replenishing the war-diminished population. Hers is the crushing weight and the sickening of soul. And it is out of her womb that those things proceed. When she sees what lies behind the glory and the horror, the boasting and the burden, and gets the vision, the human perspective, she will end war. She will kill war by the simple process of starving it to death. For she will refuse longer to produce the human food upon which the monster feeds.
-- Margaret Sanger

Angels of the Earth, we give thanks for our wonderful fecundity as a species. We give thanks to the mothers who give all and to the fathers for their fierce commitment to the children. May we always love all of our children.

We also give thanks for our growing wisdom to use the most humane methods that we have to limit our numbers to what the Earth can sanely support.

We give our great thanks to the spirits of the plants and animals who have given us medicines and taught us how to live. We also give thanks for our own human genius which has invented ever safer and more effective medical techniques for contraception and abortion.

We can feel you spirits of our ancestors and spirits of our baby angels. You swim like great leviathans and cavort like water babies in our genetic pool. We thank you for watching over us as guardians and messengers. Through you we have achieved amazing things as a species. We are grateful for our successes and atone for our failures.

Bless us O Earth, and help us to realize that Earth is a precious Island in space that we must care for above every other thing.

Who are the Earth Island Angels?

(This essay can be downloaded in booklet form as a .pdf file. Get the booklet and the color cover.)


Some of us have been listening to the Great Goddess Gaia - our Earth - and she is telling us things. She is telling us to remember the Angels of Earth Island. Earth Island is our planet, our home in the sea of space. It's the only place we have every lived and it may be the only place we ever will live.

Who are the Earth Island Angels? They are the Angels we know from Judeo-Christian religion, but they are also found in many other cultural and religious traditions. They represent the spirits of the generations who are not here on Earth now, both the ancestors and the future generations. Explore the topics below to learn more!


Angel lore comes from many sources: the Bible, the Talmud and Koran as well as Jewish mysticism texts like the Zohar and the Gnostic texts. Seraphim and Cherubim are the two most prominent orders of angels.

The Seraphim are the wisest angels. They are described as brazen or burning serpents. Seraph means serpent and their element is fire. They were recruited as God's messengers to man. Some of them are fallen angels, like Lucifer, bringer of light. The serpent almost always refers to the ancient Earth Goddess religion. The Seraphim are undoubtedly wise, but their loyalty to God is sometimes questionable because they still serve the ancient Goddess. The Seraphim are the spirits of our wise ancestors, priestesses and shamans.

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Left above: The brazen serpent that healed the followers of Moses may have represented the Seraphim. Right above: Lucifer, a fallen angel known as the bringer of light, was one of the Seraphim.


The Cherubim are the guardian angels. They wield the flaming, whirling sword. They are beasts with wings and four faces: Lion, Eagle, Ox and Man. Their wings cover the ark of the covenant, folded about it like a perfect yoni. The cherubim guard the east gate of Eden, the one where Adam and Eve were expelled.

The Cherubim are of air and breath. Their role is to touch the fetus while it is still in the womb and give it the breath of life. The mark on a newborn's upper lip is the sign of that touch. Since the Renaissance, cherubs have been portrayed in art as baby angels. This reflects their role in guarding the gates of Paradise, the Womb. Once we have left the Womb we cannot return. The Cherubim represent then, those children who died prematurely through miscarriage, abortion or infant neglect. Their souls have not been tried on earth and so they can return to Paradise to wait for another chance.

The chief Cherub is called Metatron. His female aspect is the Shekina, the Hebrew Goddess. Metatron is called "the small face of Yahweh" and "the Rod of Moses." From one side of the Rod comes life and the other death. He is the teacher of prematurely dead children in paradise while they await a more auspicious time for birth.

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The Ark of the Covenant represents Eden or the Womb, to which we can never return. The Cherubim who guard it form a the shape of a vagina with their wings.

Cherubim guard the womb, and part of their role seems to be the approval of abortion and even infanticide. Throughout human history, around the globe, people have practiced abortion and infanticide as a necessary population control.

In Europe, from the middle ages until the nineteenth century, infanticide was institutionalized in several ways. First, the practice of hiring wet nurses often resulted in the death of the foster nursling as undernourished mothers had trouble keeping two or more infants alive. During the population explosion of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, abandoned infants became such a problem that foundling hospitals were established where unwanted babies could be deposited. However, very few infants survived the hospitals which farmed them out to wet nurses in the country. The winged baby cherubs that decorate so many sentimental objects are a way of unconsciously honoring the spirits of babies who did not survive.


The "putti", small angel faces found in much Renaissance art, represent unwanted babies sent back to heaven to wait a better time for birth.

Jizo Dolls 

Many women or couples in Japan who have terminated a pregnancy, suffered a miscarriage, or had a stillborn baby choose to honour the soul of this child through a practice called mizuko jizo. Mizuko means ‘child of the water’ and is used to refer to the soul of a child who has been returned to the gods. Jizo is the name of the Buddhist god who protects and guides that soul on its journey to another world.

Abortion is regarded as the parents willingly making a decision to return a child to the gods, sending a child to a temporary place until such time that it is right for the child to come into this world, either into the same family or another one. The child is returned because the parents, at that time, would be unable to provide enough love, money, or attention to this child, without it being to the detriment of their present family. Practicing mizuko jizo allows the parents to provide a certain amount of attention to the child, who is regarded as a member of their family: to apologize to the child and to ask for forgiveness from their child for being unable to bring them up. This involves the practice of a ritual where the parents purchase a doll, adorn it and enshrine it in a temple where it is cared for by priests.Angels 3 copy  

Jizo images at a Japanese shrine and Jizos with the Buddha.

Tiki Gods

The heitiki, usually carved from native greenstone, is one of the most prized of Maori ornaments, and is worn as a pendant by women. It represents a human embryo. The heitiki gave its wearer mana (power) associated with fertility and creation. There is also an association with the Maori culture hero, Maui. Maui was aborted by his mother who already had too many sons. She placed his body on a bed of seaweed to be washed out to sea. Maui floated on the seaweed to another island where an aged couple rescued him and raised him.

Though she was required to cut off her topknot to atone for what she had done, Maui's mother was not evil. Later, Maui came back to her and she recognized him as her son. Maui became a trickster god, the author of many bold stunts including the attempt to defeat death by crawling back through the womb of the creator goddess Hine. The Maori call abortion "the excrement of the gods."

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Above left: The Heitiki amulet worn by Maori women represents an aborted fetus and the culture hero Maui. Above right: Tangaroa, a tiki god of fishermen from Tahiti and the Cook Islands.

In Polynesian languages, a tiki is a penis as well as a small fetcher spirit that can protect a person, like a guardian angel. Tiki gods are especially useful to fishermen who enlist their help in catching fish. Fetuses disposed of in the ocean were thought to become fish and there are legends of women who encounter their aborted children who had become fish.

The Hawaiians had a god of abortion named Ku Po. He resembles the god of war with his cockscomb and his image is a fierce head on the end of a long pointed stick. The stick was the abortion instrument. In Hawaii, aborted and still born children were considered part of the family and after several generations they were deified as minor gods who watched over the clan.

In Tahiti, the Oro cult institutionalized abortion. Oro was a "soft" war god, "warrior-of-the-laid-down-spear," who promoted a peaceful alternative to war. Oro's disciples were a group of traveling entertainers, men and women who were singers, dancers and storytellers. These Arioi, as they were known, traveled about the islands throwing festivals. Wherever they arrived, village people were obliged to feast and gift them. Sometimes the Arioi became a nuisance and depleted people's resources, but there was nothing they could do. Those who joined the Arioi had to pledge to remain child free. They taught abortion techniques wherever they went as it was a necessary part of their program of making love not war. As many as a fifth of the population belonged to the Arioi, significantly reducing the number of breeders, and hence, the competition for resources leading to war.

On the small islands of the South Pacific, population regulation before the modern era of imported food must have been of paramount concern. Abortion and infanticide were widely practiced. Aborted children were thought to return directly to heaven and could serve as messengers to the gods. It was important to honor them or they could become angry and bring down the wrath of heaven. Eskimos also called abortion "the excrement of the gods" and they believed that if abortion was practiced irresponsibly it would disturb Sedna, mother of the seals, and the hunters would have poor luck.

Jinns, Water Babies and Twists of Clay

There are many more examples of angels and water babies used by different cultures to work through the feelings surrounding abortion. The European fairies and water sprites are fetus-like creatures who inhabit a nether world. Arabic Jinns, or Genies are the kind of spirits that can be either good or bad. The word Jinn is related to the words for fetus and garden and means a hidden spirit.

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Pictures from the Charles Kingsley children's book, The Water Babies. 

Certain small sculptures of the ancient Olmec people of Mexico appear to resemble fetuses. Archeologist Carolyn Tate has studied these sculptures and says: "Among the Mixe, contemporary descendants of the Olmecs, the female supernatural power that controls bodies of water also controls human childbirth and fishing. It is as if one "fishes" for children, or as if fish were placed in the womb in order to be "cooked" into human infants, as the Mixe say."

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Two Olmec fetus sculptures from "Olmec Sculptures of the Human Fetus" by Carolyn Tate and Gordon Bendersky. 

Abortion was openly practiced in the harem of the Aztec ruler Montezuma. The Aztecs and their precursors occupied deserts and jungles that provided very little in the way of protein. Their only domesticated animals were the turkey and the dog. With so little meat to go around, population limitation was desirable.

Representations of the fetus may be more common than we know. Marija Gimbutas identifies fetal twists of clay found in archeological sites in old Europe. Figurines of frogs, fish, salamanders and other such creatures may have actually represented fetuses in the minds of those who made them.

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Above left: A fish-fetus sculpture from neolithic Europe. Above right: A silver frog with a human face from the Alps, 19th century. From "The Language of the Goddess" by Marija Gimbutas.

The Fall

Adam's first wife Lilith was something like a goddess of abortion. She wanted to be his equal and when he refused to let her change their sexual position so she could be on top, she left him. Yahweh sent three angels after her, but she escaped and went to live in a cave. Yahweh punished her by decreeing that all her children would die, but since she knew the secret name of Yahweh, she retained power over all newborn children and could cause any of them to die. The daughters of Eve must protect their children from Lilith by using amulets to ward her off.

The story of Lilith and of the expulsion of Adam and Eve from the Garden of Eden represents the change of human social organization from matrilineal to patriarchal. In former times, all children belonged to their mothers and mother's brothers. But the fathers wanted their own children to honor them and care for them in their old age and slowly they subverted the ancient system. The knowledge Eve gave to Adam was the knowledge of his exclusive paternity (previously it was thought that a woman had to lie with more than one man to conceive). This knowledge knocked the old world off its foundations and began an era of pain and strife.Angels 8 copy

Above left: Lilith tempting Eve with the fruit of knowledge. Above right: A representation of Lucifer after the fall. Note that he/she causes birth as well as death.

One consequence of the change was the loss of old methods of population regulation. Fathers wanted more sons to increase their power in commerce and war. The first written law codes, those of Assyria and Hammurabi, where primarily concerned with the regulation of women and their fertility. The law required that a woman who aborted should be impaled on a stake and refused sacred burial. Infanticide however, remained perfectly legal, if exercised by the father, as it was now his right to chose which children to keep and which to kill. Fathers were more likely to keep sons and to kill daughters.

Still, throughout much of the ancient world, women continued to practice abortion. Ancient medical texts show that a variety of effective herbal abortifacients were known. Mostly these were taken within the first month of pregnancy. An herb called silphium, a variety of giant fennel, was so effective that during Greek and Roman times it was harvested to extinction. It could not be cultivated and grew only in the deserts of Libya.

Toward the end of the Roman empire, rulers became increasing concerned about the slowing of population growth. More and more their subjects were refusing to birth large families. The custom was to sell unwanted infants as slaves, but fewer families were willing to do that. At its height, about twenty percent of the Empire's subjects were slaves. Imperial Rome imposed new laws against abortion.

A similar situation took hold with the rise of mercantilism during the Renaissance. In the aftermath of the bubonic plague and the depopulation of Europe, a general prosperity took hold as the survivors inherited the wealth of the land. Laborers and artisans commanded high wages. The wealthy merchants, however, wanted lower wages and so increased pressure was brought upon women to bear large families again. The period of the Renaissance coincides with the peak of the witch persecutions in which an estimated half million women were executed. Most of these women were either midwives with knowledge of contraception and abortion or single women who had aborted. As a result, most of the ancient knowledge of herbal abortifacients was lost to ordinary women.


Women healers murdered by the witch hunters.

Abortion and Democracy

The witch was called a baby killer because she took the regulation of population into her own hands against the interests of the merchant rulers who based their power on growth and war. This struggle continues. The interests of women, labor and the small democratic society are opposed to the interests of those who value the accumulation of obscene wealth and concentrated power above all else.

As human population continues to grow exponentially, it is now doubling at a rate of every 30 years. The stresses on the environment and systems of food production, water and energy are enormous and growing. The stresses on human society are equally great. Outbreaks of violence, substance abuse, disease and insanity are increasing. Poverty is on the rise as labor is oversupplied and wages fall. Since the globalization of economic systems, America is no longer immune to these forces.

One consequence we rarely think about is the impact of mass society on democracy. The Jeffersonian ideal of democracy is based on a small society where problems can be solved by participation of all citizens in town hall meetings. In 1800 it was quite possible that your representative to Congress would know you or your family by name. Now it is unthinkable unless you are a wealthy contributor, a lobbyist or a political activist. The number of constituents per representative has grown from 25,000 to 640,000 and is still growing. In the words of science fiction writer Isaac Asimov: "Democracy will not survive overpopulation."

The masses of men are easier to manipulate than thoughtful small groups and the mass media is the perfect instrument of control. Adolf Hitler said in Mein Kampf: "the great mass of people will more easily fall victim to a big lie than to a small one." Thus George W. Bush can claim to be "pro-life" while he sends young people off to die in an unprovoked war.

Fascist rulers have learned that the easiest way to control people is by controlling their sexuality. Women in particular are made to feel that their natural sexuality is "dirty" and the only noble function of sex is to produce children. A Nazi newspaper in 1931 published the following: "The family with many children must be preserved.... because it is a highly valuable, indispensable part of the German nation .... not only because it alone guarantees the maintainence of the population in the future but because it is the strongest basis of national morality and national culture.... the legalization of abortion is at variance with the function of the family, which is to produce children, and would lead to the definite destruction of the family with many children."

A large part of the success of the extreme right wing in American politics derives from its appeal to abortion opponents. Like the Nazis, the right wing has tied abortion to the stability of the family and ultimately the security of the nation. But this is a big lie. In fact the opposite is true. Abortion, family planning and comprehensive health care for women can halt exponential population growth. If we don't accept the necessity of population limitation, we will have it imposed upon us anyway as the burden of growing population continues to destroy our environment. As the environment deteriorates, we lose our health, our livelihood and our security.

Abortion is an emotional issue. It is never anyone's first choice and should not be used as a contraceptive. But the fact is that even modern contraceptives are hard to use, can harm women's health and can fail. Abortion is still necessary as a backup. Instead of fighting against abortion, let us honor the souls of the tiny beings we must send back to heaven and concentrate our energies and passions on creating a better world for the people who are already here. In the process we will also create a sustainable future so that those souls may have a chance to return to Earth some day.

Earth Island Angels

Earth Island Angels are the modern version of the Tiki god or the Cherub. Like the Buddhist Jizo dolls, we can use these icons to focus our thoughts and prayers.

Earth Island Angels can be anything. Angels and fairies are very popular today and lovely images of them can be found everywhere. Put an angel or a fairy on your personal altar or sacred space and use it to remind you of the sad but sometimes necessary sacrifice of abortion. Use it to give thanks that we have much better contraceptives today than our ancestors did. Give thanks that we rarely have to resort to abortion and never to infanticide. Give thanks also for the lives of millions of women that have been saved by access to safe, legal abortion.

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I have created my own Earth Island Angels in the image of an embryo with butterfly wings. These images remind me of the wondrous biological diversity of the Earth as represented by the thousands of species of butterflies.

When I see these images I am reminded that because I chose to end my accidental pregnancies, there are two fewer human beings on the earth impacting the habitat of butterflies and other creatures. They make me feel good about the decision I made because I have left more room on Earth for nature to flourish. If you would like to see more of my images, go the gallery.

Questions? Comments? Please leave them on the front page comment section. 

Thank you from Lily Angel.



Use this bibliography for further study of the spiritual, biological and cultural dimensions of abortion and overpopulation.

Biology and Evolution

Angier, Natalie, Woman: An Intimate Geography.
Bagemihl, Bruce, Biological Exuberance.
Barash, The Whisperings Within: Evolution and the Origin of Human Nature.
Candland, Douglas Keith, Feral Children and Clever Animals: Reflections on Human Nature.
Dawkins, Richard, The Selfish Gene.
DeWaal, Franz, Bonobo: The Forgotten Ape.
DeWaal, Franz, Peacemaking Among Primates.
Diamond, Jared, The Third Chimpanzee.
Dobzhansky, Theodosius, Mankind Evolving.
Eldredge, Niles, Dominion: Can Nature and Culture Co-Exist?
Elia, Irene, The Female Animal.
Fisher, Helen, The Sex Contract.
Flannery, Tim, The Future Eaters.
Gould, Stephen Jay, Wonderful Life: The Burgess Shale and the Nature of History.
Hrdy, Sarah Blaffer, The Woman That Never Evolved.
Kano, Takeyoshi, The Last Ape: Pygmy Chimpanzee Behavior and Ecology.
Kingdon, Jonathan, Self-Made Man.
Lambert, David, The Field Guide to Early Man.
Lancaster, Jane B., Primate Behaviour and the Emergence of Human Culture.
Leakey, Richard and Roger Lewin, The Sixth Extinction: Patterns of Life and the Future of Humankind.
Leakey, Richard, The Origin of Humankind.
Lovelock, James, Healing Gaia.
Margulis, Lynn, Symbiotic Planet: A New Look At Evolution.
Mayr, Ernst, Toward a New Philosophy of Biology: Observations of an Evolutionist.
Morgan, Elaine, The Descent of Woman.
Morgan, Elaine, The Scars of Evolution.
Ridley, Matt, Genome: The Autobiography of a Species in 23 Chapters.
Rifkin, Jeremy, Entropy: Into the Greenhouse World.
Savage-Rumbaugh, Sue, Kanzi.
Sevely, Josephine Lowndes, Eve’s Secrets: A New Theory of Female Sexuality.
Shreeve, James, The Neandertal Enigma.
Stanley, Steven M., Children of the Ice Age.
Stoddart, D. Michael, The Scented Ape: The Biology and Culture of Human Odor.
Stringer, Christopher and Robin McKie, African Exodus: The Origins of Modern Humanity.
Wallace, David Rains, The Klamath Knot.
Wilson, E. O., The Diversity of Life.
Wrangham, Richard and Dale Peterson, Demonic Males.

Anthropology, History and Pre-History

Ascherson, Neal, Black Sea.
Barber, Elizabeth Wayland, The Mummies of Urumchi.
Barber, Elizabeth Wayland, Women’s Work: The First 20,000 Years.
Baroja, Julio Caro, The World of the Witches.
Barstow, Anne Lewellyn, Witchcraze: A New History of the European Witch Hunts.
Bell, Diane, Daughters of the Dreaming.
Bloom, Howard, The Lucifer Principle.
Blundell, Sue, Women in Ancient Greece.
Boswell, John, Christianity, Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality.
Burkert, Walter, Rene Girard and Jonathan Z. Smith, Violent Origins: Ritual Killing and Cultural Formation.
Cavilli-Sforza, Luigi Luca and Francesco Cavalli-Sforza, The Great Human Diasporas.
Chagnon, Napoleon, Yanomamo: The Fierce People.
Curtin, Phillip, et al. African History.
Devereux, George, A Study of Abortion in Primitive Societies.
Diamond, Jared, Guns, Germs and Steel.
Edgerton, Robert B., Sick Societies: Challenging the Myth of Primitive Harmony.
Ehrenreich, Barbara, Blood Rites: The Origin and History of the Passions of War.
Evans, Arthur, Witchcraft and the Gay Counterculture.
Fagan, Brian, Floods, Famines and Emperors.
Fagan, Brian, From Black Land to Fifth Sun: The Science of Sacred Sites.
Fraser, Antonia, The Warrior Queens.
Grahn, Judy, Blood, Bread and Roses: How Menstruation Created the World.
Gregor, Thomas, Anxious Pleasures, The Sexual Lives of an Amazonian People.
Guttentag, Marcia and Paul F. Secord, Too Many Women? The Sex Ratio Question.
Handwerker, W. Penn, Culture and Reproduction: An Anthropological Critique of Demographic Transition Theory.
Harris, Marvin and Eric B. Ross, Death, Sex and Fertility: Population Regulation in Preindustrial and Developing Societies.
Harris, Marvin, Cannibals and Kings.
Harris, Marvin, Cultural Materialism.
Harris, Marvin, Our Kind: The Evolution of Human Life and Culture.
Howell, Martha C., Women, Production and Patriarchy in Late Medieval Cities.
Hrdy, Sarah Blaffer, Mother Nature: A History of Mothers, Infants and Natural Selection.
James, Simon, The World of the Celts.
Kahn, Miriam, Always Hungry, Never Greedy: Food and the expression of gender in a Melanesian society.
Kapuscinski, Ryszard, The Shadow of the Sun.
Kassindja, Fauziya and Layli Miller Bashir, Do They Hear You When You Cry.
Keuls, Eve C., The Reign of the Phallus: Sexual Politics in Ancient Athens.
Knight, Chris, Blood Relations: Menstruation and the Origins of Culture.
Kristoff, Nicholas D. and Sheryl Wudunn, China Wakes: The Struggle for the Soul of a Rising Power.
LaFleur, William, Liquid Life: Abortion and Buddhism in Japan.
Leacock, Eleanor Burke, Myths of Male Dominance.
Lerner, Gerda, The Creation of Feminist Consciousness: From the Middle Ages to Eighteen-seventy.
Lerner, Gerda, The Creation of Patriarchy.
Lincoln, Bruce, Emerging from the Chrysalis: Rituals of Women’s Initiation.
Mair, Lucy, Primitive Government.
Mallory, J.P., In Search of the Indo-Europeans.
Martin, M. Kay and Barbara Voorhies, Female of the Species.
Maybury-Lewis, David, Millennium: Tribal Wisdom and the Modern World.
McNamara, Jo Ann, A New Song: Celibate Women in the First Three Christian Centuries.
Mead, Margaret and Ruth L. Bunzel, ed., The Golden Age of American Anthropology.
Mead, Margaret, Coming of Age in Samoa.
Mead, Margaret, Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies.
Meggers, Betty J., Amazonia, Man and Culture in a Counterfeit Paradise.
Merchant, Carolyn, The Death of Nature: Women, Ecology and the Scientific Revolution.
Moore, Henrietta L., Feminism and Anthropology.
Mumford, Lewis, The Myth of the Machine: Technics and Human Development.
Murphy, Yolanda and Robert F. Murphy, Women of the Forest.
Nile, Richard and Christian Clerk, Cultural Atlas of Australia, New Zealand and the South Pacific.
Norberg-Hodge, Helena, Ancient Futures: Learning from Ladakh.
Oliver, Douglas L., Ancient Tahitan Society.
Oppenheimer, Stephen, Eden in the East: The Drowned Continent of Southeast Asia.
Paige, Karen Ericksen and Jeffery M. Paige, The Politics of Reproductive Ritual.
Perlin, John, A Forest Journey: The Role of Wood in the Development of Civilization.
Poe, Richard, Black Spark, White Fire: Did African Explorers Civilize Ancient Europe?
Pomeroy, Sarah B., et al. Ancient Greece: A Political, Social, and Cultural History.
Reed, Evelyn, Woman’s Evolution: from Matriarchal Clan to Patriarchal Family.
Riddle, John M., Contraception and Abortion from the Ancient World to the Renaissance.
Riddle, John M., Eve’s Herbs: A History of Contraception and Abortion in the West.
Rowlandson, Jane, ed., Women & Society in Greek & Roman Egypt: A Sourcebook.
Ruhlen, Merritt, The Origin of Language.
Sahlins, Marshal, Stone Age Economics.
Sanday, Peggy Reeves, Divine Hunger: Cannibalism as a Cultural System.
Scheper-Hughes, Nancy, Death Without Weeping: The Violence of Everyday Life in Brazil.
Schmookler, Andrew Bard, The Parable of the Tribes.
Sered, Susan, Women of the Sacred Groves: Divine Priestesses of Okinawa.
Shlain, Leonard, Sex, Time and Power: How Women’s Sexuality Shaped Human Evolution.
Shostak, Marjorie, Nisa: the Life and Words of the !Kung Woman.
Sykes, Brian, The Seven Daughters of Eve.
Tannahill, Reay, Sex in History.
Tate, Carolyn, Olmec Sculptures of the Human Fetus, in PARI Online Publications, #30, Winter 1999.
Taylor, Timothy, The Prehistory of Sex: Four Million Years of Human Culture.
Ulrich, Laurel Thatcher, A Midwife’s Tale: The Life of Martha Ballard, Based on Her Diary, 1785-1812.
Van Der Post, Laurens and Jane Taylor, Testament to the Bushmen.
Vayda, Andrew P., ed., Environment and Cultural Behavior: Ecological Studies in Cultural Anthropology.
Walker, Alice and Pratibha Parmar, Warrior Marks: Female Genital Mutilation and the Sexual Blinding of Women.
Wallace-Hadrill, J. M., The Barbarian West: The Early Middle Ages A.D. 400-1000.
Weatherford, Jack, Savages and Civilization.

Myth, Religion and Psychology

Ashe, Geoffrey, Dawn Behind the Dawn: A Search for the Earthly Paradise.
Bailey, Adrian, The Caves of the Sun: The Origin of Mythology.
Baldick, Julian, Animal and Shaman: Ancient Religion of Central Asia.
Beckwith, Martha, Hawaiian Mythology.
Begg, Ean, The Cult of the Black Virgin.
Besserman, Perle, Kabbalah and Jewish Mysticism.
Bettelheim, Bruno, Symbolic Wounds: How pre-literate man masters fear by trying to make woman’s power his own.
Bynum, Edward Bruce, The African Unconscious: Roots of Ancient Mysticism and Modern Psychology.
Calasso, Roberto, The Marriage of Cadmus and Harmony.
Campbell, Joseph, The Masks of God, Four Volume Series: Primitive Mythology, Oriental Mythology, Occidental Mythology, Creative Mythology.
Carus, Paul, The History of the Devil and the Idea of Evil.
Clark, R. T. Rundle, Myth and Symbol in Ancient Egypt.
Davidson, Gustav, A Dictionary of Angels.
Davidson, Hilda Ellis, The Lost Beliefs of Northern Europe.
De Santillana, Giorgio, and Hertha von Dechend, Hamlet’s Mill: An Essay on Myth and the Frame of Time.
Diner, Helen, Mothers and Amazons: The First Feminine History of Culture.
Dinnerstein, Dorothy, The Mermaid and the Minotaur: Sexual Arrangements and Human Malaise.
Eisler, Riane, The Chalice & the Blade: Our History, Our Future.
Eliade, Mircea, The Myth of the Eternal Return.
Erdoes, Richard and Alfonso Ortiz, American Indian Myths and Legends.
Frazer, James George, The Golden Bough.
Freud, Sigmund, Civilization and Its Discontents.
Freud, Sigmund, The Future of an Illusion.
Giedion, S., The Eternal Present: The Beginnings of Art.
Gimbutas, Marija, The Language of the Goddess.
Gleason, Judith, Oya: In Praise of an African Goddess.
Godwin, Malcolm, The Holy Grail: Its Origins, Secrets, and Meaning Revealed.
Graves, Robert, The White Goddess.
Griaule, Marcel, Conversations With Ogotemmeli.
Hadingham, Early Man and the Cosmos.
Hamilton, Edith, Mythology.
Hawkes, Jacquetta, Dawn of the Gods: Minoan and Mycenaean origins of Greece.
Hayden, Tom, The Lost Gospel of the Earth: A Call for Renewing Nature, Spirit, and Politics.
Hillman, James, Blue Fire.
Jacobsen, Thorkild, The Treasures of Darkness: A History of Mesopotamian Religion.
Jaynes, Julian, The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind.
Keller, Werner, The Bible as History.
Kirsch, Jonathan, The Harlot by the Side of the Road: Forbidden Tales of the Bible.
Koltuv, Barbara Black, The Book of Lilith.
LaChapelle, Dolores, Sacred Land, Sacred Sex, Rapture of the Deep.
Levi-Strauss, Claude, The Raw and the Cooked: Introduction to a Science of Mythology.
Mac Cana, Proinsias, Celtic Mythology.
Maguire, Daniel C., Sacred Choices: The Right to Contraception and Abortion in Ten World Religions.
Markale, Jean, Montsegur and the Mystery of the Cathars.
Markale, Jean, Women of the Celts.
Metzner, Ralph, The Well of Remembrance: Rediscovering the Earth Wisdom Myths of Northern Europe.
Moon, Sheila, A Magic Dwells: A Poetic and Psychological Study of the Navaho Emergence Myth.
Pagels, Elaine, Adam, Eve, and the Serpent.
Paris, Ginette, The Sacrament of Abortion.
Reed, A. W., Treasury of Maori Folklore.
Reich, Wilhelm, The Mass Psychology of Facism.
Rue, Loyal, By the Grace of Guile.
Ruether, Rosemary Radford, Gaia & God: An Ecofeminist Theology of Earth Healing.
Ruether, Rosemary Radford, Sexism and God-Talk: toward a feminist Theology.
Schafer, Edward, The Divine Woman: Dragon Ladies and Rain Maidens.
Scott, Mary, Kundalini in the Physical World.
Settegast, Mary, Plato Prehistorian: 10,000 to 5000 BC Myth, Religion, Archeology.
Shah, Idries, The Sufis.
Shepard, Paul, Coming Home to the Pleistocene.
Shepard, Paul, The Others: How Animals Made Us Human.
Shlain, Leonard, The Alphabet Versus The Goddess: The Conflict Between Word and Image.
Sjoo, Monica and Barbara Mor, The Great Cosmic Mother: Rediscovering the Religion of the Earth.
Smith, Morton and R. Joseph Hoffman, What the Bible Really Says.
Stone, Merlin, Ancient Mirrors of Womanhood: A Treasury of Goddess and Heroine Lore from Around the World.
Stone, Merlin, When God Was a Woman.
Sullivan, William, The Secret of the Incas: Myth, Astronomy and the War Against Time.
Suzuki, David and Peter Knudtson, Wisdom of the Elders: Honoring Sacred Native Visions of Nature.
Thompson, William Irwin, The Time Falling Bodies Take to Light: Mythology, Sexuality and the Origins of Culture.
Turner, Frederick, Beyond Geography: The Western Spirit Against the Wilderness.
Vitaliano, Dorothy B., Legends of the Earth: How the new science of Geomythology explains them.
Young, Dudley, Origins of the Sacred: The Ecstasies of Love and War.

Feminism, Environmentalism and Population Politics

Ayres, Ed, God’s Last Offer: Negotiating for a Sustainable Future.
Banks, J.A. and Olive, Feminism and Family Planning in Victorian England.
Bradford, George, How Deep is Deep Ecology?
Brown, Lester and Hal Kane, Full House: Reassessing the Earth’s Population Carrying Capacity.
Catton, William R., Jr., Overshoot: The Ecological Basis of Revolutionary Change.
Colker, Ruth, Abortion and Dialogue.
Daly, Mary, Gyn-Ecology: The Metaethics of Radical Feminism.
Devall, Bill, Deep Ecology.
Devall, Bill, Simple in Means, Rich in Ends: Practicing Deep Ecology.
Diamond, Irene, Fertile Ground: Women, Earth and the Limits of Control.
Djerassi, Carl, The Pill, Pygmy Chimps and Degas’ Horse.
Djerassi, Carl, The Politics of Contraception, in two volumes: The Present and The Future.
Dykeman, Wilma, Too Many People, Too Little Love, biography of Edna Rankin McKinnon: Pioneer for Birth Control.
Ehrlich Paul and Anne H. Ehrlich, The Population Explosion.
Ehrlich, Paul, The Population Bomb.
Faludi, Susan, Backlash.
Faludi, Susan, Stiffed.
Firestone, Shulamith, The Dialectic of Sex: The Case for Feminist Revolution.
Flynn, Elizabeth Gurley, The Rebel Girl: An Autobiography.
Ginsburg, Faye, Contested Lives.
Gordon, Linda, Woman’s Body, Woman’s Right: Birth Control in America.
Greer, Germaine, Sex and Destiny.
Gupte, Pranay, The Crowded Earth: People and the Politics of Population.
Handwerker, W. Penn, Births and Power: Social Change and the Politics of Reproduction.
Hardin, Garrett, Stalking the Wild Taboo.
Hardin, Garrett, The Ostrich Factor: Our Population Myopia.
Hite, Shere, The Hite Report: Nationwide Study of Female Sexuality.
Lappe, Frances Moore and Rachel Schurman, Taking Population Seriously.
Luker, Kristin, Abortion and the Politics of Motherhood.
Martin, Emily, The Woman in the Body: A Cultural Analysis of Reproduction.
McKibben, Bill, Enough.
McKibben, Bill, The End of Nature.
Merchant, Carolyn, Radical Ecology: The Search for a Livable World.
Mies, Maria and Vandana Shiva, Ecofeminism.
Miller, Patricia G., The Worst of Times: Illegal Abortion.
Morgan, Lynn M. and Meredith W. Michaels, Fetal Subjects, Feminist Positions.
Morrison, Reg, The Spirit in the Gene: Humanity’s Proud Illusion and Laws of Nature.
Peck, Ellen and Judith Senderowitz, Pronatalism: the Myth of Mom and Apple Pie.
Ratner, Rochelle, ed., Bearing Life: Women’s Writings on Childlessness.
Rifkin, Jeremy, The Hydrogen Economy.
Rosenblatt, Roger, Life Itself: Abortion in the American Mind.
Saadawi, Nawal, The Hidden Face of Eve: Women in the Arab World.
Sanger, Margaret, Margaret Sanger: An Autobiography.
Schneir, Miriam, ed., Feminism: The Essential Historical Writings.
Shrage, Laurie, "From Reproductive Rights to Reproductive Barbie: Post-Porn Modernism and Abortion," Feminist Studies, #28, Spring 2002.
Singer, Peter, Writings on an Ethical Life.
Slater, Philip, The Pursuit of Loneliness: American Culture at the Breaking Point.
Tavris, Carol, The Mismeasure of Woman.
Wolf, Naomi, The Beauty Myth.


Cohen, Jack and Ian Stewart, The Collapse of Chaos: Discovering Simplicity in a Complex World.
Gleick, James, Chaos: Making a New Science.
Horgan, John, Rational Mysticism: Dispatches from the Border Between Science and Spirituality.
Horgan, John, The End of Science: Facing the Limits of Knowledge in the Twilight of the Scientific Age.
Jantsch, Erich, The Self-Organizing Universe: Scientific and Human Implications of the Emerging Paradigm of Evolution.
Monod, Jacques, Chance and Necessity.
Prigogine, Ilya and Isabelle Stengers, Order Out of Chaos: Man’s New Dialogue With Nature.
Wilson, E. O., Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge.